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Glossary

A

Account

Like a bank account, a means to allow you to keep separate records of your funds.

Address

A destination for a payment, similar to an email address.

Airdrop

A means to distribute cryptocurrency to a specific audience as a reward.

Algorithm

A process followed in problem-solving or calculation operations.

All-Time-High (ATH)

The highest price point that a specific cryptocurrency has ever ascended to.

All-Time-Low (ATL)

The lowest price point that a specific cryptocurrency has ever descended to.

Altcoin

An abbreviation of the term “alternative coin” usually used when referring to any other coin than Bitcoin.

API (Application Programming Interface)

A means for software components to interact with a clear set of directions detailing what data should be transferred and what actions should be taken.

ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)

A computer designed specifically to perform Proof-of-Work (PoW) mining.

Atomic Swap

The decentralized exchange of cryptocurrencies from separate blockchains.

Authentication

A means of confirming identity by using ownership proofs such as passwords, SMS codes, or fingerprints.

B

Bag

Slang for an individual's amount of a single cryptocurrency or their portfolio.

Bandwidth

The amount of data available for transactions on a network.

Beacon Chain

A blockchain that organizes shard chains, staking, and recording of validators in a Proof-of-Stake cryptocurrency.

Bear

A person who believes that cryptocurrency prices will decline. The opposite of a Bull.

Bear Market

A period when cryptocurrency prices fall, and sellers have overtaken buyers, causing market prices to decrease consistently. Opposite of Bull Market.

Bear Trap

False technical indication of a reversal from a down-market to an up-market that can lure unsuspecting investors.

Bearwhale

A holder of a vast sum of cryptocurrency that uses their position to make a profit by driving the price down.

Beta Version

A pre-release phase of software development that allows the product to be tested in the real world by selected users.

Binary Code

A two-value protocol based on the numbers "0" and "1" used to represent text, computer commands, or other types of data.

Bit

A single binary value, either 0 or 1, the smallest unit of data in a computer. An abbreviation of Binary Digit.

Bitcoin Pizza

On May 22nd, 2010, Laszlo Hanyecz paid 10,000 Bitcoins for two pizzas. The now infamous transaction was the first business transaction of Bitcoin in the real world.

Bitcoiner

A person who is optimistic about Bitcoin.

Block

The data structure transactions are logged on, before being secured in a blockchain.

Blockchain

A series of blocks secured consecutively on a distributed digital database.

Block Explorer

A user-friendly tool for inspecting the contents of blocks.

Block Header

A hash value of block metadata used as a title to identify blocks.

Block Height

A value describing the position of a specific block in a blockchain.

Block Reward

A portion of a newly minted digital token assigned to users who help verify transactions on a blockchain.

Block Size

The amount of transaction data a single block in a chain can hold.

Block Time

The time it takes for a new block to be produced.

Block Voting

A process where users who have currency tied up (staking) vote to approve or reject the regular transaction tree of the previous block. It can also be used to describe voting on protocol changes and consensus rule change proposals.

Bots

Automated software used to carry out tasks.

Bounty

A reward given to people for completing jobs assigned by a blockchain project.

Browser Extension

An internet browser plugin that adds additional features.

Brute Force Attack (BFA)

An automated trial and error attack with the aim of cracking a password or key.

Bull

A person who believes that cryptocurrency prices will increase. The opposite of a Bear.

Bull Market

When the price of cryptocurrency grows dramatically. Opposite of a Bear Market.

Bull Run

A period of time during which the value of cryptocurrency is constantly rising.

Bull Trap

When a steadily declining cryptocurrency appears to reverse and increase in value but shortly resumes its downward trend.

Burn/Burned

A coin or token that has been purposely and permanently removed from circulation.

Buy The Dip (BTD)

To buy cryptocurrency while prices are at a low point.

C

Capital

A sum of money that can be invested.

Censorship

The act of altering, suppressing, or prohibiting publicly available media that is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient.

Central Bank

An institution responsible for providing financial services to a country’s government and commercial banking system as well as the transmission of monetary policy and issuing currency.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

A digital currency issued by a central bank and controlled by a government.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A computer component responsible for coordinating, interpreting, and executing programs.

Centralized

An organizational structure where a single entity is in control of an entire network.

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

A cryptocurrency exchange operated by a centralized company.

Chain Split

A situation where a blockchain splits into two separate chains.

Change

A similar principle to change when using cash, when 1 unit of cryptocurrency is sent from a wallet address that contains multiple units of currency, the remainder is sent to another address owned by the sender, a change address.

Change Address

A unique address created by your wallet every time it has a need to receive change.

Circulating Supply

An approximation of the total amount of coins both held by users and circulating on the market.

Cloud Mining

Paying for remote processing power from a third party for the task of cryptocurrency mining.

Coin

A layer 1 cryptocurrency that operates independently or one unit of such a cryptocurrency.

Coin Type

A unique number that is given to a cryptocurrency and used during the process of generating public/private keypairs.

Cold Wallet

A wallet used to generate private keys and store cryptocurrency whilst being completely offline.

Command Line Interface (CLI)

An interface interacted with by using the command line

Consensus Rules Voting

A democratic method of changing consensus rules by user participation in a vote.

Constitution

A clear definition of the purpose and guiding principles of a project.

Core Wallet

A wallet that contains the complete blockchain.

CPU Mining

The process of mining cryptocurrency using a central processing unit (CPU).

Credit

A full unit of a currency.

Cross-Chain

The exchange of information and value between blockchain networks.

Cryptocurrency

A digital form of money, solely existing online, constructed using blockchain technology and cryptographic techniques. Abbreviation; Crypto.

Cryptographic Hash Function

A mathematical algorithm used to produce a fixed-size value from variable-size data input.

Cryptography

The study of secure communication techniques permitting the sender and intended recipient alone to view a message.

Cryptojacking

The use of a third party’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.

Cryptology

The scientific study of cryptography.

Custody

The ability to store financial assets whilst preventing theft or loss.

D

Dead Coin

A cryptocurrency that has ceased to exist.

Decentralized

A system or network where distributed and individually owned computers work together to achieve a common goal.

Decentralized Applications (DApps)

An application built and run on a decentralized network.

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)

An organization without a single, central body that is democratically governed by defined rules, smart contracts, and member voting.

Decentralized Currency

A means of transferring currency using a distributed network that isn’t operated by a single, centralized third party.

Decentralized Database

A data storage solution that uses a decentralized, distributed network to randomly store data across multiple nodes.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A direct peer-to-peer cryptocurrency exchange that allows the transaction of assets without the need for an intermediary.

Decentralized Governance

The process of a network's users democratically voting on the development and management of the blockchain.

Decentralized Identifier (DID)

ID that acts as proof of ownership of a digital identity issued by a decentralized autonomous network.

Decentralized Marketplace

A global means for trades to be completed without the need for third-party intermediaries.

Decentralized Network

A group of independently owned and distributed nodes that connect with each other without a single coordinating source of control or server.

Decentralized Payment Network

A payment system where monetary transactions can be completed between users, without having to rely on a third-party intermediary to maintain the network.

Decentralized Social Media

A blockchain-based social media platform.

Decentralized Stablecoin

A transparent and non-custodial cryptocurrency with zero or minimal third-party control.

Decryption

The process of reversing encrypted data back into a readable format.

DeFi (Decentralized Finance)

A booming industry providing an alternative to traditional, centralized financial services.

Desktop Wallet

Software installed on a desktop computer or laptop that provides the user with a cryptocurrency wallet that is usually non-custodial.

Deterministic Wallet

A type of cryptocurrency wallet where keys are derived from a single seed allowing users to back up or restore a wallet with ease.

Diamond Hands

Crypto community slang for a person who holds their coins despite a considerable drop in the value of their portfolio. Opposite of Weak Hands.

Difficulty

A measure of the difficulty, and therefore how much computing power is required, to mine a new block in a particular cryptocurrency.

Digital

Electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: 1’s and 0’s or positive and non-positive, respectively.

Digital Art

Art created by using digital technology.

Digital Asset

The digital form of something of value.

Digital Commodity

Similar to a digital currency, a digital commodity solely exists in a digital form.

Digital Currency

A currency that exists solely in digital form without a physical representation.

Digital Dollar

An informal name given to a potential central bank digital currency (CBDC) proposed by the US Government to the federal reserve.

Digital Identity

A set of digital data used by a person or entity to identify themselves.

Digital Signature

A means of proving the authenticity of digital communications.

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)

An algorithm that uses public-key cryptography to generate digital signatures.

Dip

When markets experience a downturn.

Discord

A web-based social media communication platform targeted at, but not solely used by, gamers.

Distributed Consensus

An agreement by users across a distributed network.

Distributed Ledger

A cryptographically secure ledger that stores data across a distributed network of nodes, where each node holds an identical copy, not necessarily decentralized, permissionless, or public.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

The basis for blockchains and cryptocurrencies; a distributed ledger shared across many nodes on a network.

Distributed Network

A network where information is dependent on multiple sources, as opposed to a single centralized server.

Double-Spend

An attack where a set of coins or a coin is spent in more than one transaction which creates new coins that didn’t exist prior.

Dump

A sudden sell-off of digital assets.

E

ELI5 (Explain Like I’m Five)

A request for a basic explanation.

Emission

The production rate of new coins.

Encryption

The process of turning data into a code.

Enterprise Blockchain

Distributed ledger technology, private or public, tailored to the specific needs of businesses.

ERC-20

A standard for Ethereum-based tokens.

Event Triggers

A process that activates an event to trigger a smart contract.

Exchange

A platform where it is possible to trade cryptocurrencies for either other cryptocurrencies or fiat.

Exchange Traded Fund(ETF)

A basket of securities, such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies, that tracks an underlying index and can be traded like a single stock.

Exit Scam

A scam where cryptocurrency projects shut down after amassing investors’ money.

Expired License (Zinnia Specific Term)

A license that has not been selected to vote during the voting period.

Explorer (Zinnia Specific Term)

A member of the Zinnia community on Discord that has earned the position as an ambassador of the network.

F

Faucet

A website or app that gives out small amounts of cryptocurrency as a reward for the completion of minor tasks, like a faucet leaking small droplets of water.

Fee Tiers

A fee structure that determines the amount charged when investors deposit or withdraw money and execute trades on a crypto exchange.

Fiat

Traditional currency, such as USD/GBP/Euro, backed by a central government and available in physical or digital form.

Fiat On-Ramp

A means to purchase cryptocurrency with fiat.

Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency

A cryptocurrency that is linked to a government or bank-issued currency.

FOMO (Fear Of Missing Out)

Anxiety that one may be missing out on an exciting opportunity for a good investment usually aroused by posts on social media.

Fork

A term used to describe what happens when a blockchain has a change in protocol and nodes make separate paths forward. It can also refer to an instance where a block is mined by two or more miners at the same time. (See Hard Fork and Soft Fork)

FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt)

A pessimistic mindset relating to a particular cryptocurrency or the market as a whole caused by negative, misleading, or false information.

Full Node

Software that validates all transactions and blocks fully, as opposed to trusting a 3rd party. An Abbreviation of “Fully-Validating Node”.

Fungible

When an asset can be replaced by another identical asset.

Futures

An agreement to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at a specified time in the future and at a predetermined price.

G

Game Theory

Analyzing how groups or individuals handle competitive situations. Utilized within cryptocurrencies to determine the required conditions to prevent people from behaving in a way that could negatively impact a network.

Gardener (Zinnia Specific Term)

A member of the Zinnia community on Discord.

Gas

A fee on the Ethereum Network based on the cost of conducting transactions or executing smart contracts.

Gas Limit

The maximum fee a user is willing to spend on an Ethereum-based transaction.

Gas Price

The price you have to pay for an Ethereum-based transaction.

Genesis Block

The very first block in a blockchain.

Governance

People or organizations that have decision-making powers over a currency.

Governance Token

A cryptocurrency token that can influence the governance of a network by being used to vote on decisions.

Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)

A computer chip or graphics card that can be used to effectively mine cryptocurrency.

Gwei

More Ethereum terminology, this time it refers to the denomination used in measuring the cost of gas in Ethereum transactions.

H

Hacking

The process of unauthorized manipulation of another computer or computer system.

Halving

An event in which the total reward per confirmed block halves.

Hard Cap

The maximum supply of a cryptocurrency.

Hard Fork

A rule change where a node working according to the old rules will assess blocks produced according to the new rules as invalid. If a group of nodes continues to use the old rules a permanent split can happen. (see also Soft Fork)

Hash

The result of a cryptographic hashing function that produces a fixed-size alphanumeric output from a variable-size input.

Hash Function

A function that uses cryptography to produce a fixed-size alphanumeric output from a variable-size input.

Hashrate

The amount of hashes per second completed by miners on a network.

Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) Wallet

A wallet that is able to generate all of its keys and addresses from a single source and automatically derive a tree-like structure of public/private keypairs.

HODL (Hold On for Dear Life)

Originating from a typo of the word “HOLDING” in a Bitcoin forum, HODL refers to an investment strategy where you hold an investment over a long period of time. The term is also now recognized as an acronym for “Hold On for Dear Life.”

Hot Wallet

A wallet that is always connected to the internet and cryptocurrency network, for example a Proof-of-Stake wallet.

Hybrid PoW/PoS

A consensus method combining the benefits of PoW and PoS to increase security and decentralization and provide the greatest overall consensus mechanism for cryptocurrencies.

Hyperledger (Hyperledger Foundation)

An umbrella project of open-source blockchains and blockchain-related tools started by the Linux Foundation in 2015 to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.

I

Immutable

Something that can not be changed regardless of time or energy.

Inflation ​​

An increase in prices and a fall in the purchasing value of money.

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)

A method of launching a cryptocurrency project that focuses on users contributing skills to a platform rather than money.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

A type of crowdfunding using cryptocurrencies as a means of raising capital for start-up companies.

Initial Dex Offering (IDO)

An decentralized version of an initial coin offering (ICO).

Initial Exchange Offering

A type of crowdfunding where cryptocurrency start-ups list on an exchange to raise capital.

Initial Farm Offering (IFO)

A method that helps DeFi projects raise capital through the farming feature offered by decentralized exchanges.

Initial Game Offering (IGO)

A means of raising capital for gaming project.

Initial NFT Offering (INO)

A type of crowdfunding where cryptocurrencies can raise funds by listing a set of NFTs via a launchpad.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

The process of a company offering shares for purchase on the stock market for the first time.

Initial Token Offering (ITO)

Similar to an ICO but geared towards offering tokens with utility.

Intellectual Property (IP)

Intangible human creations such as books, designs, manufacturing processes, or software that can be legally protected from being copied or sold.

Internet of Things (IoT)

A global interconnected network of smart devices, sensors, and software that can collect and exchange data in real-time via the internet.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

A peer-to-peer, distributed system for storing and accessing files, as well as websites and applications, which relies on content addressing rather than location.

Intrinsic Value

An asset’s actual worth based on a complex financial calculation rather than its current price.

Issuance

Increase in the available supply of a cryptocurrency as more coins are minted into existence through the block reward.

J

Java

A general-purpose, class-based as well as object-oriented programming language.

JavaScript

An advanced programming language mostly used in web-based applications.

JOMO (Joy Of Missing Out)

A feeling of contentment with one’s own pursuits and activities, without worrying over the possibility of missing out on what others may be doing. The opposite state of FOMO.

K

Know Your Customer (KYC)

Identity checking process that cryptocurrency exchanges and trading platforms need to complete to verify the identity of customers.

L

Lambo

The term is used as a means of expressing excitement that cryptocurrency is going to make the user extremely wealthy. Short for Lamborghini, the Italian supercar brand.

Layer 1

The type of underlying blockchain architecture of a base network such as Bitcoin or Ethereum where the blockchain can validate and finalize transactions independently.

Layer 2

A secondary blockchain architecture that is built using an existing Layer 1 blockchain with the aim of solving scaling difficulties, creating utility, improving transaction speed, or other such aspects that the Layer 1 blockchain is unable to facilitate.

Leverage

The use of borrowed capital to increase trading power.

License (Zinnia Specific Term)

Zinnia holders can time-lock ZINN in exchange for a license. Licenses bestow voting rights to the holder, allowing them to vote on Zinnnia governance decisions.

License Pool (Zinnia Specific Term)

The pool of live licenses that are available to be called to vote.

License Price (Zinnia Specific Term)

The amount of ZINN a user must time-lock to buy a license.

Light Node

Typically a downloaded wallet that contains only specific parts of a blockchain such as headers and needs to be connected to a full node to further validate information. An abbreviation of Lightweight Node.

Lightning Network

A second-layer transaction mechanism using channels between two parties to process transactions more quickly, designed to solve Bitcoin’s scalability problem.

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell

Types of orders used to purchase or sell a cryptocurrency at a specified or better price.

Liquidation

The conversion of cryptocurrency for fiat.

Liquidity

The efficiency or ease with which a cryptocurrency can be traded without impacting its market value.

Litepaper

A document that gives investors an overview of the concept, technical information, and roadmap for a cryptocurrency project.

Live License (Zinnia Specific Term)

Licenses that are waiting to be called to vote.

Long

Purchasing cryptocurrency with the plan of selling it at a higher price later.

M

Mainnet

A term used to differentiate the main network from the testnet.

Malware

Malicious software used to illegally access and compromise a computer, network, or server.

Man-in-the-Middle Attack (MITM)

A general term for a cyberattack where a perpetrator positions themself between two parties for nefarious reasons.

Masternodes

Similar to a full node, but with extra functions such as participating in governance and voting, and anonymizing and clearing transactions.

Max Supply

The maximum number of coins that will ever exist in the lifetime of a cryptocurrency.

Meatspace

The physical world, as opposed to cyberspace or metaverse.

Meme Economy

An online culture where memes are addressed as if they were commodities with different prices.

Memecoin

A cryptocurrency token created as a joke or meme.

Mempool

Transactions waiting to be mined.

Merkle Tree

A structure in cryptography shaped like a tree where every leaf node is labeled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labeled with the hash value of the titles of its child nodes. Because each change in the structure has an upwards knock-on effect, verification can be achieved by examining the uppermost hash.

Metaverse

A digital universe containing aspects of the real world, such as live interactions, economies, and real estate.

Miners

Cryptocurrency users that help secure a network by successfully validating blocks via the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus method.

Mining Difficulty

A measure of how difficult it is to find the right hash for the next block.

Mining Farm

A term for a group of miners who mine together, also known as a mining pool.

Mining Reward

The income that miners receive after finding and validating a block.

Mining Rig

Equipment used for mining cryptocurrency.

Minting

The process of generating new coins using the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism.

Missed License (Zinnia Specific Term)

Licenses that have been called but did not receive a reward. This can happen if a license is called to vote, but the wallet that bought the license does not respond or if a miner does not include the vote in the following block.

Mobile Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet installed on a mobile device.

Moon

A term used to describe a continuous upward movement in the price of a cryptocurrency.

Multisignature

A transaction that can be authorized by more than one private key.

N

Network

All the nodes involved in the operation of a blockchain.

Network Latency

The amount of time it takes for a node on one network to communicate with a node on another network.

Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM)

A combination of the best attributes of the Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) networks, enabling interoperability and scalability to promote mass adoption.

Newb

A person that is new to a community. No-Coiner A person who owns no cryptocurrency and has an overall negative opinion of the technology.

Node

An electronic device connected to the network used to validate transactions, broadcast new blocks, and maintain the ledger.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

A financial security consisting of digital data stored in a blockchain.

Nonce

Derived from the term “number used once,” it refers to a field in the block header. PoW miners adjust this number to keep the hash of the block lower than or equal to the difficulty target of the network at that time.

Notarization on Blockchain

A function of blockchain technology that allows anyone to timestamp a creation and secure its provenance.

O

Off-Chain

A transaction processed outside of a blockchain network to increase speed and decrease cost.

Off-Chain Governance

A type of blockchain governance where decisions are made away from the primary codebase.

On-Chain

Transactions recorded on the blockchain itself and distributed between all the users.

On-Chain Governance

A type of blockchain governance where decisions are made by the primary codebase.

Open Source

The sharing of information freely for the good of the community.

Oracles

Software that finds and verifies information, connecting external systems to a blockchain and providing data to smart contracts enabling execution.

Orphan Block

A valid block that is not included in the definitive blockchain.

Orphan Transaction

A transaction with missing inputs.

Over-the-Counter (OTC)

A transaction outside of an exchange, usually peer-to-peer through private trades.

P

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

The decentralized interactions between users of a distributed network.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending

The lending of assets without a third-party intermediary.

Peg

A value for the rate of exchange between assets that is tied to some other medium of exchange, such as gold or fiat.

Pegged Currency

A cryptocurrency whose value is fixed to a traditional asset, such as a fiat currency.

Permissioned Ledger

A ledger designed with restrictions, where participants are known and authorization is required before use.

Permissionless

A network that no single entity can regulate or control.

Ponzi Scheme

A form of fraud where profits are paid to early investors using funds gained from new investors.

Post-Mine

The creation of new coins following a cryptocurrency’s launch, before public mining is possible.

Pre-IDO

Tokens offered before an initial DEX offering (IDO) takes place.

Pre-Mine

The generation of a limited amount of a coin’s initial supply prior to the public launch.

Pre-Sale

The sale of a cryptocurrency to investors before it goes public.

Private Blockchain

A blockchain controlled by a single entity.

Private Key

A cryptographic key, known only to the owner, that is used to decipher messages sent using a public key.

Private Passphrase

A set of secret words known only to the owner that is often used to secure private keys.

Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Voting

A consensus mechanism by which cryptocurrency holders vote to approve blocks confirmed by PoW miners and earn staking rewards.

Proof-of-Work (PoW)

A consensus mechanism miners use to prove they have contributed computational power to create a new block.

Protocol

A set of rules and processes that govern how a blockchain network will operate, usually covering consensus mechanism, transaction validation, and network participation.

Pseudonymous

The use of a false name to protect one’s true identity, a famous example being Satoshi Nakamoto.

Public Address

The cryptographic hash of a public key used as an address to send payments.

Public Blockchain

A blockchain that can be accessed by anyone.

Public Key

A cryptographic key available to anyone and used to encrypt messages that only the intended recipient can decipher using their private key.

Public Sale

The last round of an ICO when a cryptocurrency project offers its coin to the public before it’s listed on an exchange.

Public-Key Cryptography

Algorithmic cryptographic procedures used to scramble data, so it appears randomized.

Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)

A series of roles, policies, and processes used by a network to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and manage public-key encryption and revoke digital certificates.

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme

The use of social media to artificially inflate the value of a cryptocurrency by making false and misleading positive statements before selling to make a profit.

Q

QR Code

A black-and-white pattern readable by smart devices that contains graphically encoded data.

Quantum Computing

A computer that uses quantum mechanics to perform vastly more efficient computations than traditional computers are able to.