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Glossary

Like a bank account, a means to allow you to keep separate records of your funds.

A destination for a payment, similar to an email address.

A means to distribute cryptocurrency to a specific audience as a reward.

A process followed in problem-solving or calculation operations.

The highest price point that a specific cryptocurrency has ever ascended to.

The lowest price point that a specific cryptocurrency has ever descended to.

An abbreviation of the term “alternative coin” usually used when referring to any other coin than Bitcoin.

A means for software components to interact with a clear set of directions detailing what data should be transferred and what actions should be taken.

A computer designed specifically to perform Proof-of-Work (PoW) mining.

The decentralized exchange of cryptocurrencies from separate blockchains.

A means of confirming identity by using ownership proofs such as passwords, SMS codes, or fingerprints.

Slang for an individual's amount of a single cryptocurrency or their portfolio.

The amount of data available for transactions on a network.

A blockchain that organizes shard chains, staking, and recording of validators in a Proof-of-Stake cryptocurrency.

A person who believes that cryptocurrency prices will decline. The opposite of a Bull.

A period when cryptocurrency prices fall, and sellers have overtaken buyers, causing market prices to decrease consistently. Opposite of Bull Market.

False technical indication of a reversal from a down-market to an up-market that can lure unsuspecting investors.

A holder of a vast sum of cryptocurrency that uses their position to make a profit by driving the price down.

A pre-release phase of software development that allows the product to be tested in the real world by selected users.

A two-value protocol based on the numbers "0" and "1" used to represent text, computer commands, or other types of data.

A single binary value, either 0 or 1, the smallest unit of data in a computer. An abbreviation of Binary Digit.

On May 22nd, 2010, Laszlo Hanyecz paid 10,000 Bitcoins for two pizzas. The now infamous transaction was the first business transaction of Bitcoin in the real world.

A person who is optimistic about Bitcoin.

The data structure transactions are logged on, before being secured in a blockchain.

A series of blocks secured consecutively on a distributed digital database.

A user-friendly tool for inspecting the contents of blocks.

A hash value of block metadata used as a title to identify blocks.

A value describing the position of a specific block in a blockchain.

A portion of a newly minted digital token assigned to users who help verify transactions on a blockchain.

The amount of transaction data a single block in a chain can hold.

The time it takes for a new block to be produced.

A process where users who have currency tied up (staking) vote to approve or reject the regular transaction tree of the previous block. It can also be used to describe voting on protocol changes and consensus rule change proposals.

Automated software used to carry out tasks.

A reward given to people for completing jobs assigned by a blockchain project.

An internet browser plugin that adds additional features.

An automated trial and error attack with the aim of cracking a password or key.

A person who believes that cryptocurrency prices will increase. The opposite of a Bear.

When the price of cryptocurrency grows dramatically. Opposite of a Bear Market.

A period of time during which the value of cryptocurrency is constantly rising.

When a steadily declining cryptocurrency appears to reverse and increase in value but shortly resumes its downward trend.

A coin or token that has been purposely and permanently removed from circulation.

To buy cryptocurrency while prices are at a low point.

A sum of money that can be invested.

The act of altering, suppressing, or prohibiting publicly available media that is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient.

An institution responsible for providing financial services to a country’s government and commercial banking system as well as the transmission of monetary policy and issuing currency.

A digital currency issued by a central bank and controlled by a government.

A computer component responsible for coordinating, interpreting, and executing programs.

An organizational structure where a single entity is in control of an entire network.

A cryptocurrency exchange operated by a centralized company.

A situation where a blockchain splits into two separate chains.

A similar principle to change when using cash, when 1 unit of cryptocurrency is sent from a wallet address that contains multiple units of currency, the remainder is sent to another address owned by the sender, a change address.

A unique address created by your wallet every time it has a need to receive change.

An approximation of the total amount of coins both held by users and circulating on the market.

Paying for remote processing power from a third party for the task of cryptocurrency mining.

A layer 1 cryptocurrency that operates independently or one unit of such a cryptocurrency.

A unique number that is given to a cryptocurrency and used during the process of generating public/private keypairs.

A wallet used to generate private keys and store cryptocurrency whilst being completely offline.

An interface interacted with by using the command line

A democratic method of changing consensus rules by user participation in a vote.

A clear definition of the purpose and guiding principles of a project.

A wallet that contains the complete blockchain.

The process of mining cryptocurrency using a central processing unit (CPU).

A full unit of a currency.

The exchange of information and value between blockchain networks.

A digital form of money, solely existing online, constructed using blockchain technology and cryptographic techniques. Abbreviation; Crypto.

A mathematical algorithm used to produce a fixed-size value from variable-size data input.

The study of secure communication techniques permitting the sender and intended recipient alone to view a message.

The use of a third party’s computer to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.

The scientific study of cryptography.

The ability to store financial assets whilst preventing theft or loss.

A cryptocurrency that has ceased to exist.

A system or network where distributed and individually owned computers work together to achieve a common goal.

An application built and run on a decentralized network.

An organization without a single, central body that is democratically governed by defined rules, smart contracts, and member voting.

A means of transferring currency using a distributed network that isn’t operated by a single, centralized third party.

A data storage solution that uses a decentralized, distributed network to randomly store data across multiple nodes.

A direct peer-to-peer cryptocurrency exchange that allows the transaction of assets without the need for an intermediary.

The process of a network's users democratically voting on the development and management of the blockchain.

ID that acts as proof of ownership of a digital identity issued by a decentralized autonomous network.

A global means for trades to be completed without the need for third-party intermediaries.

A group of independently owned and distributed nodes that connect with each other without a single coordinating source of control or server.

A payment system where monetary transactions can be completed between users, without having to rely on a third-party intermediary to maintain the network.

A blockchain-based social media platform.

A transparent and non-custodial cryptocurrency with zero or minimal third-party control.

The process of reversing encrypted data back into a readable format.

A booming industry providing an alternative to traditional, centralized financial services.

Software installed on a desktop computer or laptop that provides the user with a cryptocurrency wallet that is usually non-custodial.

A type of cryptocurrency wallet where keys are derived from a single seed allowing users to back up or restore a wallet with ease.

Crypto community slang for a person who holds their coins despite a considerable drop in the value of their portfolio. Opposite of Weak Hands.

A measure of the difficulty, and therefore how much computing power is required, to mine a new block in a particular cryptocurrency.

Electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: 1’s and 0’s or positive and non-positive, respectively.

Art created by using digital technology.

The digital form of something of value.

Similar to a digital currency, a digital commodity solely exists in a digital form.

A currency that exists solely in digital form without a physical representation.

An informal name given to a potential central bank digital currency (CBDC) proposed by the US Government to the federal reserve.

A set of digital data used by a person or entity to identify themselves.

A means of proving the authenticity of digital communications.

An algorithm that uses public-key cryptography to generate digital signatures.

When markets experience a downturn.

A web-based social media communication platform targeted at, but not solely used by, gamers.

An agreement by users across a distributed network.

A cryptographically secure ledger that stores data across a distributed network of nodes, where each node holds an identical copy, not necessarily decentralized, permissionless, or public.

The basis for blockchains and cryptocurrencies; a distributed ledger shared across many nodes on a network.

A network where information is dependent on multiple sources, as opposed to a single centralized server.

An attack where a set of coins or a coin is spent in more than one transaction which creates new coins that didn’t exist prior.

A sudden sell-off of digital assets.

A request for a basic explanation.

The production rate of new coins.

The process of turning data into a code.

Distributed ledger technology, private or public, tailored to the specific needs of businesses.

A standard for Ethereum-based tokens.

A process that activates an event to trigger a smart contract.

A platform where it is possible to trade cryptocurrencies for either other cryptocurrencies or fiat.

A basket of securities, such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies, that tracks an underlying index and can be traded like a single stock.

A scam where cryptocurrency projects shut down after amassing investors’ money.

A license that has not been selected to vote during the voting period.

A member of the Zinnia community on Discord that has earned the position as an ambassador of the network.

A website or app that gives out small amounts of cryptocurrency as a reward for the completion of minor tasks, like a faucet leaking small droplets of water.

A fee structure that determines the amount charged when investors deposit or withdraw money and execute trades on a crypto exchange.

Traditional currency, such as USD/GBP/Euro, backed by a central government and available in physical or digital form.

A means to purchase cryptocurrency with fiat.

A cryptocurrency that is linked to a government or bank-issued currency.

Anxiety that one may be missing out on an exciting opportunity for a good investment usually aroused by posts on social media.

A term used to describe what happens when a blockchain has a change in protocol and nodes make separate paths forward. It can also refer to an instance where a block is mined by two or more miners at the same time. (See Hard Fork and Soft Fork)

A pessimistic mindset relating to a particular cryptocurrency or the market as a whole caused by negative, misleading, or false information.

Software that validates all transactions and blocks fully, as opposed to trusting a 3rd party. An Abbreviation of “Fully-Validating Node”.

When an asset can be replaced by another identical asset.

An agreement to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at a specified time in the future and at a predetermined price.

Analyzing how groups or individuals handle competitive situations. Utilized within cryptocurrencies to determine the required conditions to prevent people from behaving in a way that could negatively impact a network.

A member of the Zinnia community on Discord.

A fee on the Ethereum Network based on the cost of conducting transactions or executing smart contracts.

The maximum fee a user is willing to spend on an Ethereum-based transaction.

The price you have to pay for an Ethereum-based transaction.

The very first block in a blockchain.

People or organizations that have decision-making powers over a currency.

A cryptocurrency token that can influence the governance of a network by being used to vote on decisions.

A computer chip or graphics card that can be used to effectively mine cryptocurrency.

More Ethereum terminology, this time it refers to the denomination used in measuring the cost of gas in Ethereum transactions.

The process of unauthorized manipulation of another computer or computer system.

An event in which the total reward per confirmed block halves.

The maximum supply of a cryptocurrency.

A rule change where a node working according to the old rules will assess blocks produced according to the new rules as invalid. If a group of nodes continues to use the old rules a permanent split can happen. (see also Soft Fork)

The result of a cryptographic hashing function that produces a fixed-size alphanumeric output from a variable-size input.

A function that uses cryptography to produce a fixed-size alphanumeric output from a variable-size input.

The amount of hashes per second completed by miners on a network.

A wallet that is able to generate all of its keys and addresses from a single source and automatically derive a tree-like structure of public/private keypairs.

Originating from a typo of the word “HOLDING” in a Bitcoin forum, HODL refers to an investment strategy where you hold an investment over a long period of time. The term is also now recognized as an acronym for “Hold On for Dear Life.”

A wallet that is always connected to the internet and cryptocurrency network, for example a Proof-of-Stake wallet.

A consensus method combining the benefits of PoW and PoS to increase security and decentralization and provide the greatest overall consensus mechanism for cryptocurrencies.

An umbrella project of open-source blockchains and blockchain-related tools started by the Linux Foundation in 2015 to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.

Something that can not be changed regardless of time or energy.

An increase in prices and a fall in the purchasing value of money.

A method of launching a cryptocurrency project that focuses on users contributing skills to a platform rather than money.

A type of crowdfunding using cryptocurrencies as a means of raising capital for start-up companies.

An decentralized version of an initial coin offering (ICO).

A type of crowdfunding where cryptocurrency start-ups list on an exchange to raise capital.

A method that helps DeFi projects raise capital through the farming feature offered by decentralized exchanges.

A means of raising capital for gaming project.

A type of crowdfunding where cryptocurrencies can raise funds by listing a set of NFTs via a launchpad.

The process of a company offering shares for purchase on the stock market for the first time.

Similar to an ICO but geared towards offering tokens with utility.

Intangible human creations such as books, designs, manufacturing processes, or software that can be legally protected from being copied or sold.

A global interconnected network of smart devices, sensors, and software that can collect and exchange data in real-time via the internet.

A peer-to-peer, distributed system for storing and accessing files, as well as websites and applications, which relies on content addressing rather than location.

An asset’s actual worth based on a complex financial calculation rather than its current price.

Increase in the available supply of a cryptocurrency as more coins are minted into existence through the block reward.

A general-purpose, class-based as well as object-oriented programming language.

An advanced programming language mostly used in web-based applications.

A feeling of contentment with one’s own pursuits and activities, without worrying over the possibility of missing out on what others may be doing. The opposite state of FOMO.

Identity checking process that cryptocurrency exchanges and trading platforms need to complete to verify the identity of customers.

The term is used as a means of expressing excitement that cryptocurrency is going to make the user extremely wealthy. Short for Lamborghini, the Italian supercar brand.

The type of underlying blockchain architecture of a base network such as Bitcoin or Ethereum where the blockchain can validate and finalize transactions independently.

A secondary blockchain architecture that is built using an existing Layer 1 blockchain with the aim of solving scaling difficulties, creating utility, improving transaction speed, or other such aspects that the Layer 1 blockchain is unable to facilitate.

The use of borrowed capital to increase trading power.

Zinnia holders can time-lock ZINN in exchange for a license. Licenses bestow voting rights to the holder, allowing them to vote on Zinnnia governance decisions.

The pool of live licenses that are available to be called to vote.

The amount of ZINN a user must time-lock to buy a license.

Typically a downloaded wallet that contains only specific parts of a blockchain such as headers and needs to be connected to a full node to further validate information. An abbreviation of Lightweight Node.

A second-layer transaction mechanism using channels between two parties to process transactions more quickly, designed to solve Bitcoin’s scalability problem.

Types of orders used to purchase or sell a cryptocurrency at a specified or better price.

The conversion of cryptocurrency for fiat.

The efficiency or ease with which a cryptocurrency can be traded without impacting its market value.

A document that gives investors an overview of the concept, technical information, and roadmap for a cryptocurrency project.

Licenses that are waiting to be called to vote.

Purchasing cryptocurrency with the plan of selling it at a higher price later.

A term used to differentiate the main network from the testnet.

Malicious software used to illegally access and compromise a computer, network, or server.

A general term for a cyberattack where a perpetrator positions themself between two parties for nefarious reasons.

Similar to a full node, but with extra functions such as participating in governance and voting, and anonymizing and clearing transactions.

The maximum number of coins that will ever exist in the lifetime of a cryptocurrency.

The physical world, as opposed to cyberspace or metaverse.

An online culture where memes are addressed as if they were commodities with different prices.

A cryptocurrency token created as a joke or meme.

Transactions waiting to be mined.

A structure in cryptography shaped like a tree where every leaf node is labeled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labeled with the hash value of the titles of its child nodes. Because each change in the structure has an upwards knock-on effect, verification can be achieved by examining the uppermost hash.

A digital universe containing aspects of the real world, such as live interactions, economies, and real estate.

Cryptocurrency users that help secure a network by successfully validating blocks via the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus method.

A measure of how difficult it is to find the right hash for the next block.

A term for a group of miners who mine together, also known as a mining pool.

The income that miners receive after finding and validating a block.

Equipment used for mining cryptocurrency.

The process of generating new coins using the Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism.

Licenses that have been called but did not receive a reward. This can happen if a license is called to vote, but the wallet that bought the license does not respond or if a miner does not include the vote in the following block.

A cryptocurrency wallet installed on a mobile device.

A term used to describe a continuous upward movement in the price of a cryptocurrency.

A transaction that can be authorized by more than one private key.

All the nodes involved in the operation of a blockchain.

The amount of time it takes for a node on one network to communicate with a node on another network.

A combination of the best attributes of the Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) networks, enabling interoperability and scalability to promote mass adoption.

A person that is new to a community. No-Coiner A person who owns no cryptocurrency and has an overall negative opinion of the technology.

An electronic device connected to the network used to validate transactions, broadcast new blocks, and maintain the ledger.

A financial security consisting of digital data stored in a blockchain.

Derived from the term “number used once,” it refers to a field in the block header. PoW miners adjust this number to keep the hash of the block lower than or equal to the difficulty target of the network at that time.

A function of blockchain technology that allows anyone to timestamp a creation and secure its provenance.

A transaction processed outside of a blockchain network to increase speed and decrease cost.

A type of blockchain governance where decisions are made away from the primary codebase.

Transactions recorded on the blockchain itself and distributed between all the users.

A type of blockchain governance where decisions are made by the primary codebase.

The sharing of information freely for the good of the community.

Software that finds and verifies information, connecting external systems to a blockchain and providing data to smart contracts enabling execution.

A valid block that is not included in the definitive blockchain.

A transaction with missing inputs.

A transaction outside of an exchange, usually peer-to-peer through private trades.

The decentralized interactions between users of a distributed network.

The lending of assets without a third-party intermediary.

A value for the rate of exchange between assets that is tied to some other medium of exchange, such as gold or fiat.

A cryptocurrency whose value is fixed to a traditional asset, such as a fiat currency.

A ledger designed with restrictions, where participants are known and authorization is required before use.

A network that no single entity can regulate or control.

A form of fraud where profits are paid to early investors using funds gained from new investors.

The creation of new coins following a cryptocurrency’s launch, before public mining is possible.

Tokens offered before an initial DEX offering (IDO) takes place.

The generation of a limited amount of a coin’s initial supply prior to the public launch.

The sale of a cryptocurrency to investors before it goes public.

A blockchain controlled by a single entity.

A cryptographic key, known only to the owner, that is used to decipher messages sent using a public key.

A set of secret words known only to the owner that is often used to secure private keys.

A consensus mechanism by which cryptocurrency holders vote to approve blocks confirmed by PoW miners and earn staking rewards.

A consensus mechanism miners use to prove they have contributed computational power to create a new block.

A set of rules and processes that govern how a blockchain network will operate, usually covering consensus mechanism, transaction validation, and network participation.

The use of a false name to protect one’s true identity, a famous example being Satoshi Nakamoto.

The cryptographic hash of a public key used as an address to send payments.

A blockchain that can be accessed by anyone.

A cryptographic key available to anyone and used to encrypt messages that only the intended recipient can decipher using their private key.

The last round of an ICO when a cryptocurrency project offers its coin to the public before it’s listed on an exchange.

Algorithmic cryptographic procedures used to scramble data, so it appears randomized.

A series of roles, policies, and processes used by a network to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and manage public-key encryption and revoke digital certificates.

The use of social media to artificially inflate the value of a cryptocurrency by making false and misleading positive statements before selling to make a profit.

A black-and-white pattern readable by smart devices that contains graphically encoded data.

A computer that uses quantum mechanics to perform vastly more efficient computations than traditional computers are able to.

The relative position of a cryptocurrency by market capitalization.

Malware used by hackers to steal or encrypt files and demand a ransom from the owner in exchange for file restoration or decryption.

A cryptographically derived security code, generated by a wallet, consisting of a set of random words, also known as a “Seed Phrase,” that gives the holder access to the funds within the wallet.

Shorthand slang for “wrecked,” describing a bad loss in a trade.

Nodes that assist block-producing nodes communicate by guaranteeing that the authenticity of the core nodes and the blockchain is preserved, even if one or more relays are hacked.

A process whereby a set of blocks in a blockchain are replaced by a longer set that has more work. The depth of the reorg is the number of blocks replaced. Abbreviation of reorganization.

A network security attack where communications between a sender and receiver are intercepted.

A Zinnia license that was missed or expired gets revoked, and the ZINN used to buy it becomes spendable again.

A visual timeline and summary of the direction a cryptocurrency project is taking.

The ratio between the net profit and cost of investing.

Another scam, this time it describes a situation where developers abandon a project and remove all trading liquidity, therefore, taking all their investors' money.

A time period during which Zinnia license holders can vote on consensus rule changes.

A proposal to change the consensus rules of a blockchain.

Rust is a multi-paradigm programming language, similar to C++.

0.00000001 BTC is 1 Satoshi, the smallest unit of Bitcoin.

The creator of Bitcoin.

A coin that has been created as a "get rich quick scheme” and has no other benefit.

A list of commands to be executed by a computer program.

An alternative Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to SHA-256 used in Bitcoin mining.

An independent United States federal government regulatory agency responsible for protecting investors and maintaining fair and orderly functioning of the securities markets.